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CSE Citation Guide: In-text Citations

Introduction

When quoting or paraphrasing another person's words or ideas, you must give credit to that person.  You do this with an in-text citation.  In the Name-Year system used by CSE, the in text citation includes the author's last name and the year of publication of the work.  Both are enclosed in parenthesis, with a space separating the name and the year.  It should look like this:  (author's last name year). With a web site, where there is usually no page numbers, just list the author's last name.

Example

In-text citation
The NIH has called for a change in smallpox vaccination policy (Fauci 2002) that . . . 

End citation
Fauci AS. 2002. Smallpox vaccination policy - the need for dialogue. N Engl J Med.

     346(17):1319-1320.

Variations

> When there are two authors, provide the names of both, separated by the word "and"

In-text citation
. . . and the most recent work on albuterol administration (Mazan and Hoffman 2001) is . . .

End citation
Mazan MR, Hoffman AM. 2001. Effects of aerosolized albuterol on physiologic responses to exercise in

     standardbreds. Am J Vet Res. 62(11):1812-1817.

> If a work has three or more authors, list the name of the first author followed by "et al."

In text citation
Prior studies (Ito et al. 1983) established that . . .

End citation
Ito H, Fukuda Y, Murata K, Kimura A. 1983. Transformation of intact yeast cells treated with alkali

     cations. J Bacteriol. 153(1):163-168.

> If the author is a government body or corporation, use the initials of the organization's name to create a shortened form of the name

In-text citation:   The landmark report on legalized abortion (IOM 1975) was . . .

End citation
[IOM] Institute of Medicine (US). 1975. Legalized abortion and the public health; report of a study

     by a committee of the Institute of Medicine. Washington (DC): National Academy of Sciences.

> If there is no author, use the first word or first few words of the title of the work, followed by an ellipsis ( . . .).  Use only as many words as necessary to distinguish the cited work from others in your work cited list.

In text citation: Drug dosage recommendations for elderly patients (Handbook . . . c2000) depart from . . .

End citation
Handbook of geriatric drug therapy. c2000. Springhouse (PA): Springhouse.

> If there is no date, use the words "date unknown" within brackets [  ].

In-text citation: An early Belgian study (Lederer [date unknown]) on nutrition showed . . .

End citation

Lederer J. [date unknown].  Ailmentation et cancer [Diet and cancer]. 3rd ed. Brussels (Belgium): Nauwelaerts.