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APA Citation Style Guide (7th Edition): Photographs, Maps & Other


Photograph from digital archive

Unidentified soldier in Union uniform with musket, knapsack, and bedroll. (ca. 1861-1865).  [Photograph]. Liljenquist family collection (DLC2010650518). Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

Photograph found in book

Lange, D. (1936). Migrant mother, Nipomo, California [Photograph]. Dorothea Lange. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1966.

Photograph from a website

Kudzu, D. F. (2005, September 2). Hurricane Katrina, Biloxi [Photograph].


Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (Cartographer). (2011, May 8). Recent earthquakes in Pacific Northwest, Seattle region special map. [Earthquake activity map]. 

Personal Communications

Personal Communications, such as emails, personal interviews, phone conversations, live speeches, unrecorded class lectures, etc, are not included on a reference list.  Cite them in the main text only. For example, (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2019).