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MLA 8/9 Citation Guide: Films, Television, Videos, Podcasts

Television Episode

Viewed through an App (Netflix, Hulu, Amazon Prime, Disney+)

"The Wheel." Mad Men, season 1, episode 13, AMC Television, 18 Oct. 2007. Hulu app. 

Viewed on a website

"I, Borg." Star Trek; The Next Generation, season 5, episode 23, Paramount Pictures, 1992. Netflix,

Video on the web


McGonigal, Jane. "Gaming and Productivity." YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012,

Recording of live presentation

Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. "The Danger of a Single Story." Ted: Ideas Worth Spreading, July 2009,


Listened on a website

Chang, Ailsa, host. “Why Scientists Can’t Explain All the Appeal of an Eclipse.” Morning Edition, NPR, 11 Aug. 2017. NPR,

Listened on an app

Gladwell, Malcolm, narrator. “The Lady Vanishes.” Revisionist HistoryiTunes app, 16 June 2016.


Films are collaborative works, so how you cite them depends on the focus of your essay. If your focus is on the director and the choices they make in telling the story, you begin your citation in the Works Cited list with the director's name (last name, first name). If your essay focuses on various aspects of the films, such as the story, the actor’s performances, and the director’s choices, start your citation with the film's title. And, remember, your in-text citation will always be keyed to the first element in your full citation.

Viewed through an app

Coogler, Ryan, director. Black Panther. Screenplay by Ryan Coogler & Joe Robert Cole, performance by Chadwick Boseman, Marvel Studios, 2018. Disney+ app.

Viewed through a library streaming service (Kanopy)

Paris Is Burning. Directed by Jennie Livingston. The Criterion Collection, 1990. Kanopy.

Viewed in a theater

Star Wars: The Last Jedi. Directed by Rian Johnson, Walt Disney Studios, 2017.